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Fungi

Grey rot - Botrytis cinérea

The genus Botrytis includes about 20 species, of which the most infectious is Botrytis cinerea. The diseases caused by this fungus are known as Grey Rot. It has a wide worldwide distribution, being able to infect more than 200 crops of economic importance including vine, berries, horticultural and ornamental, as well as in forest nurseries or postharvest. This aerial fungus is especially harmful in greenhouse crops that grow under high humidity conditions.

Fusarium - F. solani y F. oxysporum

Many disiease causing species belong to the genus Fusarium in virtually all known crops. In this section, reference will be made primarily to F. solani and F. oxysporum, species that cause vascular wilt and rot of seedlings, root, crown and stem base.

This disease occurs virtually in all known areas of the world where some species are grown, causing significant economic losses by reducing the growth and production of crops.

Within the species F. oxysporum, there are special forms that, although morphologically similar, are specialized in specific plant species and not in others. Plants of the same family can therefore be infected by different special forms of the same species causing the disease known as Vascular Fusariosis.

Oidium

Oidium is a fungal group known as powdery mildew, which refers to the white-grayish dust that usually covers the affected tissues and is the characteristic sign of these diseases. They are obligate parasites or biotrophs. They are highly host specific. As a group, they infect many species of plants, including many trees and shrubs, numerous ornamental plants, vegetables, cereals, herbs and even weeds. However, the individual species of powdery mildew are very specific. The diseases are caused by different species of fungi grouped into six main genera in the order Erysiphales, an order that includes a single family, the Erysiphaceae, highlighting the genera Erysiphe, Leveillula, Microsphaera, Sphaerotheca, Podosphaera and Uncinula.

Phytophthora - Phytophthora spp.

The species of the genus Phytophthora cause a wide variety of serious diseases in different types of crops, whether horticultural, fruit, ornamental or woody. The best known species is P. infestans infecting potato and tomato plants, however, there are other equally virulent species such as P. capsici, P. cinnamomi or P. cactorum.

These fungi are soil pathogens that can survive in the soil in the form of oospores or in the form of mycelium on plant debris.

Black sigatoka - Mycosphaerella fijiensis

Black Sigatoka is a disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, which mainly attacks banana leaves. It is devastating under favorable weather conditions, where leaf necrosis can reduce yields around 35-50%.

Verticilosis - Verticillium spp.

Several species of the Verticillium genus cause significant economic losses by infecting crops of agricultural interest in temperate regions, including horticultural and annual, perennial or woody species.

These fungi can persist in the soil in the absence of their host for years in a dormant state. Once the weather conditions are favorable again and there is a nearby host, they can cause new infections through the roots.

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